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Brazil's historical relationship with Italy


During the colonial era/period, between 1500 and 1822, three main ethnic groups populated Brazil - Indians, Portuguese and Africans. Other nationalities, such as French and Dutch, also lived in Brazil while their governments attempted to invade the country. (1) At the half of the 19th century, as the traffic of slaves was forbidden and Brazilian coffee farms needed (2) workforce, Pedro II, the Emperor, decided to attract European immigrants to the country. People from different European countries, mainly from Germany, Italy, (3) Spain, as well as from Japan, Syria and Lebanon, arrived at Brazilian ports.

The Italians went mainly to the (4) South and the Southeast regions. Those who went to the (4) South region were granted some land as the idea was to colonize that empty space. Most of them became small farmers and dedicated themselves to the production of wine. However, the large majority of the Italian immigrants stayed in São Paulo. In 1920, 9 per cent of the whole population of São Paulo state (5) was composed by Italians and their direct descendents. (6) In opposition to those who went to the South, those who remained in São Paulo worked principally in the coffee farms.

The immigrants had a great influence on the social scenery of the (7) centre-south Brazilian region. Their influence can be observed in different spheres - political, economic and cultural. (8) For example, the initial labor movements, at the beginning of the Brazilian industrialization period, had a great participation of Italian immigrants. They have also contributed to the economic development of the country as some of them, based on their experience/expertise, set up small businesses (9) aimed to offer products and/or services.

From (10) the cultural point of view, their influence was remarkable. (11) Even nowadays, their heritage can be easily seen by anyone who walks around the city of São Paulo. Several imposing buildings were designed by Italian architects. In some districts, the (12) large majority of their inhabitants are Italian descendents. Another visible sign of their influence (13) is on Brazilian food habits. Throughout the whole city, uncountable Italian restaurants can be found. Likewise, pasta is (14) over Brazilian tables almost daily.

Since millions of foreigners immigrated to Brazil between the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, the country is actually a mosaic of cultures from different parts of the world. Naturally, (15) the Brazilian culture reflects this diversity. Anyone traveling around the country may notice the influences of all these cultures on distinct areas. In the case of Italians, the signs are more obvious because they (16) were extremely numerous.

Footnotes

(1) Correction: By using "At the half of the 19th century," you probably mean "During the first half of the 19th century."
(2) Correction: Insert an "a" before "workforce" or change it to "workers."
(3) Correction: Insert "and" before "Spain."
(4) Suggestion only: Use "southern" and "southeastern region, rather than South and Southeast regions.
(5) Suggestion only: Replace "was composed by" by "consisted of."
(6) Suggestion only: Instead of "In opposition to those…," use "Unlike those who…"
(7) Suggestion only: Consider using "south-central" instead of "center-south."
(8) Correction: Consider replacing the sentence with the following: "For example, there was a high rate of participation by Italian immigrants in the initial labor movements at the beginning of the Brazilian industrialization period."
(9) Suggestion only: Consider deleting "aimed" as it adds nothing.
(10) Suggestion only: Consider using "From a cultural…" rather than "From the cultural…"
(11) Suggestion only: Consider using "Even today" rather than "Even nowadays" although some persons may find the latter acceptable.
(12) Suggestion only: Use "great majority" rather than "large majority" and delete "their" as it is not needed.
(13) Suggestion only: Replace "is on" (awkward) by "is found in" or "is seen in" or "is apparent in."
(14) Suggestion only: Replace "pasta is over" by "pasta is consumed at" or "pasta is served at."
(15) Suggestion only: You can keep or delete "the" in "Naturally, the Brazilian culture…"
(16) Correction: Change "were" to "are."



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